Frequently Asked Questions


  1. What is localization in the context of autonomous vehicles?  
    Localization refers to how an autonomous vehicle (AV) determines its exact position and orientation in the world. It involves identifying where the vehicle is on a map or within its environment. It is critical for the safe deployment of AVs on our shared roadways. 
  2. Why is precise localization crucial for autonomous vehicles?  
    Precise localization is a foundational element of autonomous vehicle technology. It underpins safety, navigation, and effective interaction with the surrounding environment. Positioning itself correctly allows an AV to move from point A to point B accurately and requires multiple sensors to follow the precise path while interacting with other vehicles, objects, and pedestrians.  
  3. What are the primary methods for autonomous vehicle localization?  
    A combination of sensors and technologies, such as GPS, LiDAR, cameras, radar, and inertial measurement units (IMUs), is used to determine the AV’s position relative to its surroundings. 

GPR Specific 

  1. What is the role of GPR technology in localization? 
    GPR Ground Positioning Radar uses ground penetrating radar to extract highly unique subterranean landmarks from deep beneath the driving surface to provide exceptionally robust vehicle positioning. Unlike many surface features, the subterranean landmarks or fingerprints extracted by GPR are resilient over time and impervious to environmental conditions including snow and rain, making GPR the most reliable system for vehicle localization.  
  2. How deep can GPR penetrate the ground?  
    10 feet below the surface. 
  3. What advantage does GPR have over other landmark localization systems? GPR has the key advantage that the subsurface data it uses is consistently detectable, highly stable, and protected from obstructions or adverse conditions that can degrade surface-based systems. This allows for more resilient and uninterrupted localization.
  4. What happens when someone digs down a new cable, water changes the attenuation, or in areas of highly attenuating soils? 
    GPR AI knows how to filter out saturation from the soil and focuses on the characteristics that matter for localization. 
  5. What are the limitations of GPR in autonomous vehicle localization? 
    While GPR uptime surpasses other sensor fail points, there are limited scenarios where GPR mapping may not be possible, including metal-only bridges or similar roadscapes. 


  1. What does WaveSense consist of?
    The WaveSense technology is comprised of the GroundSense, NavSense, and MapSense. 
  2. What is GroundSense?
    The WaveSense sensor is equipped with innovative radar technology. This is the hardware component of the WaveSense technology. 
  3. Where does GroundSense mount on a vehicle? 
    The sensor can be mounted anywhere in the vehicle’s undercarriage, seamlessly integrated into the chassis, or even into battery packs. 
  4. What is NavSense?
    WaveSense’s proprietary matching algorithm and base localization software are needed to operate GroundSense. 
  5. What is MapSense?
    A powerful mapping suite that tailors the system to different use cases. MapSense
    allows you to position maps on the grid to localize with NavSense. 
  6. Can I purchase NavSense without GroundSense?
    No, these products work in tandem. 
  7. What if I need a specific size or form of hardware?
    GroundSense variations may include height and length, integrated or external CPU, and mechanical configuration (i.e. heavy-duty) 
  8. Is there an ongoing cost associated with WaveSense?
    A one-time purchase enables GroundSense to operate continuously. NavSense includes a yearly maintenance fee for bug fixes and security patches, as well as algorithmic updates.
  9. What is the NavSense localization accuracy?
    Within 5 cm RMS
  10. What makes GPR WaveSense technology superior to localization methods like Lidar or computer vision?
    Unlike Lidar and computer vision, which can be affected by inclement weather and surface changes, GPR WaveSense operates independently of surface conditions. Relying on the subterranean environment eliminates common fail points associated with above-surface sensors, ensuring robust and reliable performance in various environments.
  11. Is GPR WaveSense technology adaptable to different types of autonomous vehicles and applications?
    Absolutely. GPR WaveSense technology is versatile and can be integrated into various autonomous vehicles, including cars, trucks, drones, and industrial machinery. It’s also applicable across various industries, including transportation, mining, agriculture, and construction, where accurate localization is crucial for operational efficiency and safety. 

Industry Specific 

  1. Are there industries other than autonomous vehicles that use GPR for positioning?  
    GPR works across several applications. Successful case studies and tests have been seen in the military, mining, seaports, shuttles, trucking, off-road, etc. For more information, please see our Industries page. Our commitment is to provide the most advanced method for localization, empowering autonomous fleets to navigate and operate everywhere humans can.